THE PASSIVE  &  THE ACTIVE

(trpný a činný rod)

be + past participle ( 3. tvar nepravidelných sloves nebo u pravidelných koncovka –ed)

  

Užití:

 - k popisu průběhu

            A banoffi pie is made with bananas and toffee.

- když pro nás není důležitá osoba, ale věc

            The garage rang to say your car has been repaired.

- když nevíme, kdo to udělal

            The car was stolen from outside the house.

 - můžeme ale také použít jako podmět osobu a ne věc, toto pravidlo jde použít u sloves: ask, offer, pay, show, teach, tell, give – používá se velmi často!

 

            The police were given the information. = The information was given to the police.   Policii byly dány informace.
           
I was given the present. – Byl mi dán dárek.

            She has been asked to do it. – Byla požádána, aby to udělala.

            He will be told not to speak about it.

 

 

Tvary:

            Pozn.: průběhovou formu zachováváme jen u trpného rodu v přítomném a minulém         čase. V ostatních nahrazujeme průběhovou formu prostou.

 

  

active form

passive form

present simple

to make

They make these boots in Italy.

to be made

These boots are made in Italy

present continuous

to be changing

They are changing the rules of the game.

to be being changed

The rules of the game are being changed

past simple

bought

They bought these goods in France.

were bought

These goods were bought in France

past continuous

were repairing

They were repairing damage.

was being repaired

The damage was being repaired.

present perfect simple

have lost

He has lost the keys.

have been lost

The keys have been lost.

past perfect simple

had built

They had already built the Pyramids.

had been built

The Pyramids had already been built.

future simple

will take

We will take a lesson.

will be taken

A lesson will be taken.

future perfect simple

will have taken

We will have taken lessons ..

will have been taken

Lessons will have been taken ...

modal verb

could see

 She couldn´t see the car from the office.

could be seen

 The car could not be seen from the office.

modal perfect

might have beaten

 They might have beaten United.

might have been beaten

 United might have been beaten them.

 

 

 

active form

passive form

present simple

to be

to make

to leave

to live

to do

to have

to be been

to be made

to be left

to be lived

to be done

to be had

present continuous

to be doing

to be living

to be making

to be cooking

to be working

to be being done

to be being lived

to be being made

to be being cooked

to be being worked

past simple

made

cooked

left

gave

stole

was/were made

was/were cooked

was/were left
was/were given

was/were stolen

past continuous

was making

was working

was painting

was reading

was walking

was being made

was being worked

was being painted

was being read

was being walked

present perfect simple

have painted

have read

have done

have given

have stolen

have been painted

have been read

have been done

have been given

have been stolen

past perfect simple

had read

had stolen

had eaten

had cooked

had given

had been read

had been stolen

had been eaten

had been cooked

had been given

future simple

will do

will paint

will produce

will deal

will write

will be done

will be painted

will be produced

will be dealt

will be written

future perfect simple

will have read

will have built

will have spent

will have taken

will have spoken

will have been read

will have been built

will have been spent

will have been taken

will have been spoken

modal verb

can read

may take

must speak

need build

should write

ought to paint

can be read

may be taken

must be spoken

need be built

should be written

ought to be painted

modal perfect

can have done

may have had

must have taken

need have cooked

should have made

ought to have left

can have been done

may have been had

must have been taken

need have been cooked

should have been made

ought to have been left